What Are Microservices Architecture and How Do They Work?
This blog provides a brief introduction to microservices architecture and how it works. It also explains how microservices are different from traditional architecture.
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In the era of mobile computing, app developers should be able to deploy actions quickly and make changes without redeploying the entire app. As a result, it has led to a new way of building software called "microservices." Microservices are small, self-contained parts of an app that each do their job and talk to each other through APIs.
Even though these microservices are different, they work together to complete the job. Microservices are becoming an essential part of modern app architecture, so let's talk about what microservices architecture is, how they work, and why they are helpful.
What Is Microservices Architecture?
Microservices are also called microservice architecture. This is because large applications are broken up into smaller, easier-to-manage pieces by a process called "architecture." So, it gives us the tools to work and talk to each other independently.
This method came about because monolithic architecture had problems that needed to be fixed. Since monoliths are big containers that hold all of an app's software parts, they are constrained, unreliable, rigid, and often built over time.
Each part is set up independently with microservices, but they can communicate when necessary. As a result, developers can now create very complex software apps with ease, flexibility, and scalability.
After discussing what "microservices architecture" means, let's move on to the next section.
How Does Microservices Architecture Work?
It focuses on grouping big and bulky apps. All microservices describe an app's specific parts and functions, like searching for data and keeping track of it. Also, these small services work together to make a single app.
The client can send requests through the user interface. Also, the API gateway was made for one or more microservices that help do the task asked for. So, it's easy to solve even more significant, more complicated problems that require a set of microservices.
Microservices systems let each part of a service run, grow, build, and deploy itself. This service and the others don't share any code or functions. Instead, messages move from one part of a program to another when clear APIs are used.
Based on the problems it solves, each service in the system builds a different set of skills. When developers offer more code, some services split into smaller ones. It gives developers a lot of ways to solve problems, even if they don't know what those problems are yet.
Let's take a look at how an online shopping channel works. It can think about different parts of the main app, like the customer database, product catalog, checkout options, and payment interfaces. These apps must be able to be deployed, built, and scaled independently.
It would be best if you changed some things about the payment gateway interface. Then, after figuring out what needs to be changed, you can add that app to the tech stack.
Since each service has its own code, you might wonder how they will talk to each other. API calls can be used to do this job well. Each service has an API endpoint connecting it to other stack apps. They talk to each other through HTTP requests.
They can also use a message broker or find other communication methods that don't happen simultaneously. This tool sends a message from a user's account through a shared tunnel, which sorts the messages into different groups and sends them to additional services. Service mesh is a new method that is becoming more popular in Kubernetes.
The main point is that these kinds of tasks can be written in different languages by different teams in other places. App developers can choose from different technical settings, development options, and programming languages. In-memory processing engines use several methods to improve speed and latency.
Microservices use older design patterns like modularity, service-oriented architecture (SOA), and separation of concerns. Also, the extensive system they made is too complicated for a standard monolithic architecture to handle.
Uses of Microservices
Some of the most important uses of microservices are listed below.
Applications that use microservice architecture can handle more requests at once. This means that microservices can handle more data in less time. As a result, it lets programs run faster and better.
Companies like Netflix and Amazon Prime Video handle billions of API requests daily. A microservices architecture will benefit OTT platforms that give users access to much media content.
Microservices will ensure that all requests worldwide for different subdomains are quickly and correctly handled.
Migration of a website means making significant changes and rebuilding its most essential parts, like its structure, domain, and user interface. Microservices uses help you to eliminate downtime that hurts your business and ensure your migration plans go as planned.
Transactions and Invoices
Microservices uses are great for apps that handle many payments and transactions and send out bills. A business can lose a lot of money if an app can't take payments.
Microservices use to improve an application's transaction features without changing anything else.
Tools Used in Microservices
It would help if you had a wide range of tools to help the architect with basic building tasks. Here is a list of some of these tools.
1. Operating system (OS)
One of the most important things you need to know to make an app is how it runs. Linus is an operating system (OS) that gives users and developers much freedom. It can run program codes independently and has several security, storage, and networking options for large and small applications.
2. Programming Languages
With a microservices architecture, you can focus on different programming languages for various app services. The tools and programming languages used to make an app depend on the microservice type.
3. Tools for Managing APIs and Testing Them
With a microservices architecture, the different parts of an app must be able to talk to each other. Application programming interfaces are used to do this. For APIs to work right, they need to be managed, tested, and kept an eye on all the time.
So, when making apps with a microservices architecture, tools for managing APIs and testing them are essential.
In a microservices architecture, toolkits are tools used to develop an app. Developers can choose from many different toolkits, each one doing something different. Fabric8 and Seneca are two examples of microservices toolkits.
5. Messaging Tools
It lets microservices talk with each other and the rest of the world. Apache Kafka and Rabbit MQ are messaging tools used as parts of the system by different small services.
6. Making Plans for Things
Microservices architectural frameworks make it easy to build apps. They usually have a library of code and tools to set up and launch an app.
7. Tools to Keep Track of Things
After you set up and run the microservices app, you need to monitor it to ensure everything goes as planned. Monitoring tools help developers to keep an eye on how an app works so they can find bugs and other problems before they happen.
8. Orchestration Tools
A container is a group of code, executables, libraries, and files a microservice needs to run. Systems can use container orchestration with a microservices architecture to manage and optimize containers.
9. Tools That Don't Need Servers
Serverless tools give the different microservices in an app even more freedom and mobility by eliminating the need for a server. It makes it easier to figure out how to divide and organize application tasks.
Examples of Microservices
The best tech companies use microservices to simplify their architecture, speed up development, make apps more responsive, and make updates easier.
Here are three microservices examples of how market leaders have used them to improve their businesses in the real world.
Let's delve right into what are examples of microservices architecture.
Amazon works on many small things, like letting people place orders, sign in, make wish lists, and pay for things. Each piece is a small business app that does one job.
Different business skills are used to build microservices. Each service is responsible for its data and how it organizes.
A small group must work together to do a simple task for microservices to work. Jeff Bezos, the CEO of Amazon, devised the "two-pizza rule" to determine how big a microservices team should be. Two pizza teams run microservices at Amazon.
The team couldn't have more people than two pizzas could feed. Amazon is building and running a flexible system with the help of microservices.
In 2007, Netflix began letting people rent movies online. Scaling and service outages only took a year to become big problems. In 2008, Netflix went three days without sending DVDs to customers.
It happened when they switched to a cloud system that was spread out and used Amazon Web Services as their cloud provider.
After 2009, Netflix changed how its apps were built from a monolithic to a microservices architecture. The process was done in 2012.
By switching to a microservices architecture, Netflix could fix its scaling problems and make its services available to more people worldwide.
In 2015, Netflix's API gateway was linked to more than 500 microservices hosted in the cloud to handle 2 billion API requests daily. This made streaming cheaper, which helped Netflix to make more money.
Uber eliminated its one-piece structure because it slowed the company's growth, just like Amazon and Netflix. The ride-sharing platform had problems like being unable to develop and launch new features, fix bugs quickly, and connect its fast-growing global operations.
It got to the point where the application architecture was so complicated that even small changes and updates needed developers with a lot of experience.
Uber fixed the problems it caused by breaking its "monolithic" app into "microservices" that run in the cloud. Soon after, separate microservices were created for business tasks like the trip and the problems it caused with managing passengers. These services can talk to each other with the help of an API gateway.
Using this microservices architecture, Uber solved some of its technical problems. This is why:
- Development teams took care of certain services, which helped make development projects better, faster, and easier to run.
- Teams put their attention on the services that needed to expand. It made adding more users to the app easy as demand multiplied.
- The Uber app could handle errors better, and some services can update without affecting the rest of the app.
Features of Microservices
Here are the most important features of microservices that you should know about it:
1. Split Up Into Different Pieces
It is a significant feature of microservices, as the software is made up of many small services in a microservices architecture. Each service can be built, deployed, and updated separately without affecting the rest of the application.
Instead of shutting down the app and starting it up again, you can change a few services to make it bigger.
2. Robust and Resistant to Failure
A microservices architecture has another feature to make it less likely that an app will crash. Each service can fail, which can make things stop working.
In a microservices environment, many different and unique services talk to each other to run operations, so failure is inevitable at some point.
But if a microservices-based app is set up right, a function that isn't working should be able to reroute traffic away from itself so that its connected services can keep running. You can also quickly lower the risk of disruption by keeping an eye on microservices and bringing them back online as soon as possible if they go down.
3. Simple Routing Process
Microservices are commonly used parts that can deal with both data and logic. "Dumb wires" connect these parts and send information from one to the next.
Some enterprise applications develop the exact opposite of this simple routing method. For example, an enterprise service bus uses complicated systems to route messages, set up workflows, and apply business rules.
On the other hand, microservices take requests, process them, and send the correct response back to the component that made the request.
4. Decentralized Operations
Microservices use a wide range of platforms and technologies. Because of this, the traditional ways of running a microservices architecture from a central location don't work very well.
With decentralized governance, microservices work better because developers worldwide make valuable tools for solving operational problems. You can even give these tools to other developers with the same issues.
In the same way, a microservices architecture favors decentralized data management because each microservice application manages its database. On the other hand, monolithic systems tend to run all of their applications from a single logical database.
5. Built for Modern Businesses
Microservices architecture was developed to meet the needs of 21st-century digital businesses. In traditional monolithic architectures, teams work together to build things like the user interface, technology layers, databases, and server-side logic.
Microservices are made by people from different fields working together. Each team is responsible for making products that fit the needs of the service it is working on. A message bus is how these services send and receive information.
Advantages of Using Microservices
Developers and engineers can benefit from microservices architecture in a way that they can't get from monoliths. Here are some of the advantages of using microservices that stand out.
Microservices are used to make fixing bugs and adding new features more accessible. You can update the services without reorganizing the whole app, and if something goes wrong, you can roll back an update. In many older apps, finding a bug in one part can stop the whole process of putting the app on the market. New features are put on hold while a bug fix is added, tested, and publicized.
Small and Focused Teams
A microservice should be small enough that a single team can build, test, and use it. Smaller groups can move faster than larger ones. Large teams are usually less productive because it takes them longer to talk to each other, more work to run them, and they can't move as fast.
Less Development Effort
To make a program work better, smaller teams can work on different parts of it at the same time. It makes it much easier to find the most popular services, grow them without affecting the rest of the app, and improve the app.
Small Code Base
A single-piece app's code dependencies tend to get tangled up over time. The code must change in many places to add a new feature.
A microservices architecture reduces the number of dependencies because it doesn't share data and code. It makes adding new features more accessible.
With the help of a "tech stack," teams can figure out which technologies work best for their service.
If a microservice goes down, the whole app won't be affected as long as other microservices handle errors before it. For example, you can use the Circuit Breaker pattern or devise your solution. Because of this, the microservices talk to each other using asynchronous messaging configurations.
Services could grow independently, so you could give more resources to subsystems that needed them without giving more to the whole application. You could run more services on a single host using an orchestrator like Service Fabric or Kubernetes.
Schema changes are much easier to make now that they only affect one microservice. If different parts of a monolithic app show the same information, it could be hard to update the schema. It makes it risky to change a schema.
Since each service works independently, each microservice can use a different programming language. But it's best not to use more than one modern programming language as much as possible.
Not only are microservices easier for most developers to understand, but they also take less time to set up. If you change just one thing in the code for a monolithic structure, it changes everything. You can use microservices, so you don't need to change how other services work.
In an app, each microservice must be a full stack. It gives microservices the freedom to grow whenever they want. Microservices are small, so development teams can work on a single microservice, fix any bugs, and then redeploy it without redeploying the whole application.
Because microservice architecture is flexible, you don't need a law from Congress to add or change a line of code or add or take away features. The software promises to improve business structures by making them more stable and separating problems.
With a microservices architecture, developers can solve several significant problems that were hard to solve with single-piece solutions in the past. But both too much development and too much time spent on guard can be problems on their own.
Because of this, a microservices architecture needs a platform for observability. With observability, engineers and developers can get the flexibility and reconfigurability of microservices.
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